Saturday, October 05, 2019

What is printer? explain the types of printers.

What is printer? explain the types of printers.

printer is commonly used as output device they provide the information in a permanent readable form. the printer is broadly classified into two categories:-

1. Impact printer
2. Non-impact printer

1.           Impact printer- it is used in the electrochemical mechanism that causes hammers or pins to strike against a ribbon and paper to print the text.
2.         Non-impact printer-  it is not used in electrochemical printing to a strike against everyone and paper the use thermal chemical laser beam or inkjet technology impact type printer is much faster as compared to the impact printer. dumb and disadvantages of a non-impact printer is it cannot do the a single copy of text where at impact printer produces a multiple copies of text.

Mainly printer is of three types:-

a) Character  Printer
b) Line Printer
c) Page Printer

a)         Character printer- character printer prints one character at a time it is lowest speed printer it's printing speed lies between 30 to 600 character per second it is of two types:-

i. Dot-matrix printer
ii. Inkjet printer

i.                    Dot-matrix printer- selected number of dots helps the formation of character which has 5 rows and 7 dot columns this pattern is called dot matrix printer.

ii.                  Inkjet printer- the approach text and graphics is one types of earlier approach to inkjet printer which has the mod nozzle leading to the market.

b)         Line printer- line printer prints one line at a time it's printing a speech lies between 300 to 3000 lines for milliseconds its large volume helps in printing the job it is of three types:-

i. Drum printer
ii. Chain printer
iii. Band printer

i.                    Drum printer- it is used in rapidly rotation of character which contains completely rest character in each band around the cylinder the position of each character along with the text the line contains band of rate characters set its speed lies between 200 to 2000 lines per minute.

ii.                  Chain printer-canon printer uses a rotating chain which is called as Princess and the prince and contains character which forms then kinetically drive and hammer in each sprint position this Prince receives all the characters set which is to be printed in one line from the processor its speed lies between 400 to 24000 lines per minute.

iii.                Band printer- it is just like chain printer the contains first rotating steel print band in the place of Jain print band which contain the still print raises the character set hammer strike the ribbon and paper against the character set of print the character it is a low-speed printer its speed lies between 3000 lines per minute.

c)         Page printer- page printer or non-impact printer print one page at a time this printer use laser and other light sources its speed lies between 3000 pages per minute.

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What is topology? explain types topology with diagram.

What is topology?  explain types topology with diagram.

Topology is a way for connecting on computer to the neighbour your computer for efficient transmission of data from one computer to another computer.

There are four types of topology:-
  • Bus topology
  • Star topology
  • Ring topology
  • Hybrid/Mixed topology

Bus topology- in bus topology a common cable connects all the notes this topology is generally used as the backbone for the network.
example internet token bus etc

Star topology- in Star topology is noted are connected to a control hub.

Ring topology- in ring topology data travel in a single direction around the ring from one computer to another computer is computer also works as a repeater.

Hybrid or mixed topology- in a hybrid approach is the computer is connected to all other computer it is not suitable for large connection because of a lot of cable requirements.

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What is internet explain the application of internet.

What is internet explain the application of internet.

Internet-internet is a technology which connects a computer to millions of computer in network it is a process of linking into INR with digital sources and receivers it can broadly define as a worldwide network of computer communicating upon the protocol rules for exchange the information it provides access to the source of the information on hosted by individuals and various organizations.
internet is also called a collection of different tools and devices of information connecting and storing the information in retrievable form.

The main application of internet are:-

Email- reliability to compose send and receive the email many people can get the agent of information and messages in a few minutes and hours the primary aim of internet is to interact with outside the world for outstanding in telephones and satellite email program are available one virtually any kind of computer these days.

Remote login- using telnet remote logging and many other programs the user anywhere on the internet can log in to any other programs user anywhere on the internet and log in to any other machine on which they had opened is account.

File transfer protocol- using FTP server it is possible to copy the file from one machine of internet to another West number of articles, databases and other information are available on this page.

News (North East West South)- the news group are specified to which the users with the common interest can exchange their messages 2008 new group exist on the technical and non-technical group.

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Explain the OMR, IBC, OCR and MICR.

Explain the OMR, IBC, OCR and MICR.

Explain the following:-

  • ·       OMR
  • ·       IBC
  • ·       OCR
  • ·       MICR

OMR- OMR stands for optical mark reader it is used for examination system.

IBC- IBC stands for international barcode it is written in all types of good it contains 13 digit code.

OCR- OCR stands for optical character reader it is used in financial organisation and Indian postal order.

MICR- MICR stands for magnetic ink character recognition it is used in cheque books.

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What is operating system ? explain the function of the operating system.

What is operating system ? explain the function of the operating system.

Operating system- it is a collection of programs to control or manage overall operation of the computer example Microsoft those Unix Linux Windows Mac OS etc.

Important functions of an operating System:-

Security – The operating system uses password protection to protect user data and similar other techniques. it also prevents unauthorized access to programs and user data.

Control over system performance – Monitors overall system health to help improve performance. records the response time between service requests and system response to have a complete view of the system health. This can help improve performance by providing important information needed to troubleshoot problems.

Job accounting – 
Operating system Keeps track of time and resources used by various tasks and users, this information can be used to track resource usage for a particular user or group of user.

Error detecting aids –
Operating system constantly monitors the system to detect errors and avoid the malfunctioning of computer system.

Coordination between other software and users – Operating systems also coordinate and assign interpreters, compilers, assemblers and other software to the various users of the computer systems.

Memory Management – The operating system manages the Primary Memory or Main Memory. Main memory is made up of a large array of bytes or words where each byte or word is assigned a certain address. Main memory is a fast storage and it can be accessed directly by the CPU. For a program to be executed, it should be first loaded in the main memory. An Operating System performs the following activities for memory management:

It keeps tracks of primary memory, i.e., which bytes of memory are used by which user program. The memory addresses that have already been allocated and the memory addresses of the memory that has not yet been used. In multi programming, the OS decides the order in which process are granted access to memory, and for how long. It Allocates the memory to a process when the process requests it and deallocates the memory when the process has terminated or is performing an I/O operation.

Processor Management – In a multi programming environment, the OS decides the order in which processes have access to the processor, and how much processing time each process has. This function of OS is called process scheduling. An Operating System performs the following activities for processor management.

Keeps tracks of the status of processes. The program which perform this task is known as traffic controller. Allocates the CPU that is processor to a process. De-allocates processor when a process is no more required.

Device Management – An OS manages device communication via their respective drivers. It performs the following activities for device management. Keeps tracks of all devices connected to system. designates a program responsible for every device known as the Input/output controller. Decides which process gets access to a certain device and for how long. Allocates devices in an effective and efficient way. Deallocates devices when they are no longer required.

File Management –
A file system is organized into directories for efficient or easy navigation and usage. These directories may contain other directories and other files. An Operating System carries out the following file management activities. It keeps track of where information is stored, user access settings and status of every file and more… These facilities are collectively known as the file system.

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Friday, October 04, 2019

Explain the positional and non-positional number with suitable example.

Explain the positional and non-positional number with suitable example.

Positional number- a number system with a specific number as its base is called positional number system.

Example-  Decimal Number System.

Our normal decimal numbering is an example of a positional number system. the position in which the digit appears affects the value of that digit in the number 111, each digit has a different value 100, 10 and 1.  Any base system base 2 (Binary), base 8 (Octal),  base 16 (Hexadecimal) or base R (R>1) is an example of a positional number system. even base
π  and base √2  a positional number system gives different meanings to the same symbol depending on its position. a 1  in the rightmost or 0 position means one,  a 1 in the third position from the right (100) means one hundred. A positional number system is a system for representation of numbers by and ordered set of number symbols called digits in which the value of and numeral symbol depends on its position for it is positioned a unique symbol or a limited setup symbol is used.

Non positional number- the non-positional number is that in which position of the digit has no any value.

Example roman number system 

in a non-positional number system is a number in each position does not have to be positional itself every system where is my country and it depends on symbols and values set by the people of that country, for example, the Egyptians uses Hieroglyphics  and the Greeks use and numeral system. In a positional number system a symbol means that the same thing no matter where it is located almost 3 are sometimes expectations Roman numeral are the most a familiar example of this in Roman numerals means one hundred, no matter where it is located in non-positional number system each symbol represents the same value regardless of its position in positional number system its symbol represents a number with its own place value in a positional number system it is a system that uses symbols to depict a number and non-positional number system the value of the number does not depend upon the position of digits used to represent the number unlike to positional number system a Tally-mark system is non-positional.

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What is memory ? explain the classification of memory.

What is memory ? explain the classification of memory.

Memory- Memory is the area which stores data and programs is called memory.

There are two types of memory

  1. Primary memory
  2. Secondary memory

Primary memory- in primary memory current processing of the data directory need of the CPU of the primary memory.

There are two types of primary memory

  1. RAM
  2. ROM

RAM - ram stands for Random Access Memory is used to store working data and machine code temporary.

There are three types of RAM

  1. Static RAM
  2. Dynamic RAM

ROM- ROM stands for Read Only Memory is used to permanently stores data on computer and electronics devices.

There are four types of ROM

  1. Programmable ROM
  2. Electrically programmable ROM
  3. Electrically erasable PROM

Secondary memory- In secondary memory data stores for long time and data will be erasable.

Example-  Hard Disk Drive ,CD/DVD,  Flash Drive etc.

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